An x-ray is an imaging exam that produces images of your bones and other internal organs in a fast, painless manner. X-rays are done to determine the existence of a wide range of conditions, including tooth decay, arthritis, bone cancer, lung cancer, and problems affecting the digestive tract. While x-rays expose patients to radiation, the amount is too small to pose any major risks; nevertheless, women that are or might be pregnant should inform their doctors beforehand to prevent potential harm to their unborn child.